Action Potential

For a long time, the process of communication between nerves and their target tissues was largely unknown to physiologists. With the development of electrophysiology and the discovery of the electrical activity of neurons, it was discovered that signal transmission from neurons to their target tissues is mediated by action potentials. An action potential is defined as a sudden, rapid, transient, and propagating change in the resting membrane potential. Only neurons and muscle cells are capable of generating an action potential; that property is called excitability.

Definition

Action potentials are nerve signals. Neurons generate and conduct these signals throughout their processes to transmit them to target tissues. Upon stimulation, they will be stimulated, inhibited, or modulated in some way.

Steps

But what causes the action potential? From an electrical aspect, it is caused by a stimulus with a certain value expressed in millivolts [mV]. Not all stimuli can cause an action potential. The appropriate stimulus must have sufficient electrical value to reduce the negativity of the nerve cell to the threshold of the action potential. Thus, there are subthreshold, threshold and suprathreshold stimuli.

  • Subthreshold stimuli cannot cause an action potential.
  • Threshold stimuli have enough energy or potential to produce an action potential (nerve impulse).
  • Suprathreshold stimuli also produce an action potential, but its strength is greater than that of threshold stimuli.
  • So, an action potential is generated when a stimulus changes the membrane potential to threshold potential values. The threshold potential is usually between -50 and -55 mV. It is important to know that the action potential behaves according to the law of all or nothing. This means that any subthreshold stimulus will not cause anything, whereas threshold and suprathreshold stimuli produce a full response from the excitable cell.

Is an action potential different depending on whether it is caused by a threshold or suprathreshold potential? The answer is no. The length and amplitude of an action potential are always the same. However, increasing the strength of the stimulus causes an increase in the frequency of an action potential. An action potential propagates along with the nerve fibre without diminishing or weakening its amplitude and length. Also, after an action potential is generated, neurons become refractory to stimuli for a certain period of time where they cannot generate another action potential.

Stages

From the point of view of ions, an action potential is caused by temporary changes in the permeability of the membrane for diffusible ions. These changes cause the ion channels to open and the ions to decrease their concentration gradients. The value of the threshold potential depends on the permeability of the membrane, the intracellular and extracellular concentration of ions, and the properties of the cell membrane.

An action potential has three phases: depolarization, overshoot, and repolarization. There are two more states of the membrane potential related to the action potential. The first is hyperpolarization that precedes depolarization, while the second is hyperpolarization that follows repolarization.

Hyperpolarization is the initial increase in membrane potential to the value of the threshold potential. The threshold potential opens voltage-gated sodium channels and causes a large influx of sodium ions. This phase is called depolarization. During depolarization, the interior of the cell becomes increasingly electropositive, until the potential approaches the electrochemical equilibrium for sodium of +61 mV. This phase of extreme positivity is the overdrive phase.

After the overshoot, the permeability to sodium suddenly decreases due to the closure of its channels. The overshoot value of the cell potential opens voltage-gated potassium channels, causing a large outflow of potassium, which lowers the electropositivity of the cell. This phase is the repolarization phase, the purpose of which is to restore the resting membrane potential. Repolarization always leads first to hyperpolarization, a state in which the membrane potential is more negative than the default membrane potential. But soon after, the membrane re-establishes the values ​​of the membrane potential.

After reviewing the functions of the ions, we can now define threshold potential more precisely as the value of the membrane potential at which voltage-gated sodium channels open. In excitable tissues, the threshold potential is about 10 to 15 mV lower than the resting membrane potential.

Refractory period

The refractory period is the time after an action potential is generated, during which the excitable cell cannot produce another action potential. There are two subphases of this period, absolute and relative refractoriness.

1. Absolute refractoriness overlaps depolarization and about 2/3 of the repolarization phase. A new action potential cannot be generated during depolarization because all voltage-gated sodium channels are already open or are opening at their maximum rate. During early repolarization, a new action potential is impossible since the sodium channels are inactive and need the resting potential to be in a closed state, from which they can return to an open state. Absolute refractoriness ends when enough sodium channels recover from their inactive state.

2. Relative refractoriness is the period in which the generation of a new action potential is possible, but only in response to a suprathreshold stimulus. This period overlaps the final 1/3 of repolarization.

Propagation of the action potential.

An action potential is generated in the body of the neuron and propagates down its axon. Propagation does not diminish or affect the quality of the action potential in any way, so the target tissue receives the same impulse no matter how far away it is from the cell body.

The action potential is generated at a point on the cell membrane. It spreads across the membrane, and each succeeding part of the membrane depolarizes sequentially. This means that the action potential does not move but instead elicits a new action potential from the adjacent segment of the neuronal membrane.

We need to emphasize that the action potential always propagates forward, never backward. This is due to the refractoriness of the parts of the membrane that were already depolarized, so the only possible direction of propagation is forward. Because of this, an action potential always propagates from the cell body, down the axon to the target tissue.

The speed of propagation depends largely on the thickness of the axon and whether or not it is myelinated. The larger the diameter, the higher the rate of propagation. Propagation is also faster if an axon is myelinated. Myelin increases the speed of propagation because it increases the thickness of the fibre. Furthermore, myelin allows for saltatory conduction of the action potential, since only the nodes of Ranvier are depolarized and myelin nodes are skipped. In unmyelinated fibres, each part of the axonal membrane must undergo depolarization, which makes propagation significantly slower.

Synapse

A synapse is a junction between the nerve cell and its target tissue. In humans, synapses are chemical, meaning that the nerve impulse is transmitted from the axon terminal to the target tissue by chemicals called neurotransmitters (ligands). If a neurotransmitter stimulates the action of the target cell, then it is an excitatory neurotransmitter. On the other hand, if it inhibits the target cell, it is an inhibitory neurotransmitter. Depending on the type of target tissue, there are central and peripheral synapses. Central synapses occur between two neurons in the central nervous system, while peripheral synapses occur between a neuron and muscle fibre, peripheral nerve, or gland.

Each synapse consists of:

  • Presynaptic membrane: membrane of the terminal button of the nerve fibre.
  • Postsynaptic membrane: membrane of the target cell.
  • Synaptic cleft: a gap between the presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes

Numerous vesicles containing neurotransmitters are produced and stored within the terminal button of the nerve fibre. When the presynaptic membrane is depolarized by an action potential, voltage-gated calcium channels open. This leads to an influx of calcium, which changes the state of certain membrane proteins in the presynaptic membrane and results in the exocytosis of the neurotransmitter in the synaptic cleft.

The postsynaptic membrane contains receptors for neurotransmitters. Once the neurotransmitter binds to the receptor, ligand-gated channels in the postsynaptic membrane open or close. These ligand-gated channels are the ion channels and their opening or closing will cause a redistribution of ions in the postsynaptic cell. Depending on whether the neurotransmitter is excitatory or inhibitory, this will result in different responses.

Biochemistry

Biochemistry, study of the chemical substances and processes that occur in plants, animals, and microorganisms and the changes they undergo during development and life. It deals with the chemistry of life, and as such draws on the techniques of analytical, organic, and physical chemistry, as well as those of physiologists interested in the molecular basis of life processes. All chemical changes within the organism, whether it be the breakdown of substances, usually to obtain the necessary energy or the accumulation of complex molecules necessary for life processes, are collectively called metabolism.

These chemical changes depend on the action of organic catalysts known as enzymes, and enzymes, in turn, depend on their existence on the genetic apparatus of the cell. It is not surprising, therefore, that biochemistry enters the investigation of chemical changes in disease, drug action, and other aspects of medicine, as well as nutrition, genetics, and agriculture.

The term biochemistry is synonymous with two somewhat older terms: physiological chemistry and biological chemistry. Aspects of biochemistry that deal with the chemistry and function of very large molecules (eg, proteins and nucleic acids) are often grouped under the term molecular biology. Biochemistry is a young science, known under that term only since around 1900. However, its origins go back much further; its early history is part of the early history of both physiology and chemistry.

Study areas

A description of life at the molecular level includes a description of all the complexly interrelated chemical changes that occur within the cell, that is, the processes known as intermediary metabolism. The processes of growth, reproduction, and heredity, also subjects of biochemists’ curiosity, are intimately related to intermediary metabolism and cannot be understood independently of it. The properties and capabilities exhibited by a complex multicellular organism can be reduced to the properties of the individual cells of that organism, and the behaviour of each individual cell can be understood in terms of its chemical structure and the chemical changes that occur within that cell.

Chemical composition of living matter.

Every living cell contains, in addition to water and salts or minerals, a large number of organic compounds, substances composed of carbon combined with varying amounts of hydrogen and, usually, oxygen as well. Nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur are also common constituents. In general, most of the organic matter in a cell can be classified as (1) protein, (2) carbohydrate, and (3) fat or lipid. Nucleic acids and various other organic derivatives are also important constituents. Each class contains a great diversity of individual compounds. There are also many substances that cannot be classified in any of the above categories, although usually not in large quantities.

Proteins are essential to life, not only as structural elements (eg, collagen) and to provide a defence (as antibodies) against invading destructive forces, but also because the essential biocatalysts are proteins. The chemistry of proteins is based on the research of the German chemist Emil Fischer, whose 1882 work showed that proteins are very large molecules, or polymers, made up of about 24 amino acids. Proteins can range in size from small (insulin with a molecular weight of 5,700 (based on the weight of a hydrogen atom as 1)) to very large molecules with molecular weights of over 1,000,000.

The first complete amino acid sequence was determined for the insulin molecule in the 1950s. By 1963 the amino acid chain in the protein enzyme ribonuclease (molecular weight 12,700) had also been determined, with the help of the powerful physical techniques of analysis. of X-ray diffraction. In the 1960s, Nobel Prize winners JC Kendrew and M. F. Perutz, using X-ray studies, built detailed atomic models of the proteins haemoglobin and myoglobin (the respiratory pigment in muscle), which were later confirmed by sophisticated chemical studies. The continuing interest of biochemists in protein structure is based on the fact that the arrangement of chemical groups in space provides important clues about the biological activity of molecules.

Carbohydrates include substances such as sugars, starch, and cellulose. The second quarter of the 20th century saw a startling advance in understanding how living cells handle small molecules, including carbohydrates. Carbohydrate metabolism became elucidated during this period, and the elaborate pathways of carbohydrate breakdown and subsequent storage and utilization were gradually described in terms of cycles (eg, the Embden-Meyerhof glycolytic cycle and the Krebs cycle). ). The involvement of carbohydrates in respiration and muscle contraction was well elaborated in the 1950s. Refinements of the schemes continue.

Fats, or lipids, are a heterogeneous group of organic chemicals that can be extracted from biological material by nonpolar solvents such as ethanol, ether, and benzene. The classic work on the formation of body fat from carbohydrates was done in the early 1850s. Those studies, and subsequent confirmatory evidence, have shown that the conversion of carbohydrates to fat occurs continuously in the body. The liver is the main site of fat metabolism.

The absorption of fat in the intestine was studied as early as the 1930s. It is known that the control of fat absorption depends on a combined action of the secretions of the pancreas and bile salts. Abnormalities of fat metabolism, which give rise to disorders such as obesity and rare clinical conditions, are the subject of much biochemical research. Equally interesting to biochemists is the association between high levels of fat in the blood and the development of arteriosclerosis (“hardening” of the arteries).

Nucleic acids are large, complex compounds of very high molecular weight present in the cells of all organisms and in viruses. They are of great importance in the synthesis of proteins and in the transmission of hereditary information from one generation to the next. Originally discovered as components of cell nuclei (hence their name), it was assumed for many years after their isolation in 1869 that they were found nowhere else. This assumption was not seriously questioned until the 1940s, when it was determined that there are two types of nucleic acid: deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), in the nuclei of all cells and in some viruses; and ribonucleic acid (RNA), in the cytoplasm of all cells and in most viruses.

The profound biological importance of nucleic acids gradually came to light during the 1940s and 1950s. Attention turned to the mechanism by which protein synthesis and genetic transmission were controlled by nucleic acids (see below, Genes). During the 1960s, experiments were aimed at refining the genetic code. Promising attempts were made in the late 1960s and early 1970s to replicate nucleic acid molecules outside the cell, that is, in the laboratory. By the mid-1980s, genetic engineering techniques had achieved, among other things, in vitro fertilization and DNA recombination (so-called gene splicing).

Evolution and origin of life.

Space exploration beginning in the mid-20th century intensified speculation about the possibility of life on other planets. At the same time, the man was beginning to understand some of the intimate chemical mechanisms used for the transmission of hereditary characteristics. By studying the structure of proteins in different species, it was possible to see how the amino acid sequences of functional proteins (for example, haemoglobin and cytochrome) have been altered during phylogeny (the development of species). It was natural, therefore, for biochemists to regard the problem of the origin of life as a practical one. The synthesis of a living cell from inanimate material was not considered an impossible task for the future.

Transposons Shifting Segments of the Genome

Transposable elements (TEs), which shift segments of the Genome are also known as “jumping genes”. These elements were first identified more than 50 years ago by geneticist Barbara McClintock of the Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory in New York. Biologists were initially sceptical of McClintock’s discovery. However, over the next several decades, it became clear that TEs not only “jump” but are also found in almost all organisms (both prokaryotes and eukaryotes), and usually in large numbers. For example, TEs constitute approximately 50% of the human genome and up to 90% of the maize genome (SanMiguel, 1996).

Retrotransposons

Unlike class 2 elements, class 1 elements, also known as retrotransposons, move through the action of RNA intermediates. In other words, class 1 TEs do not encode transposase; rather, they produce RNA transcripts and then rely on reverse transcriptase enzymes to reverse transcribe the RNA sequences back into DNA, which is then inserted into the target site.

There are two main types of class 1 TEs: LTR retrotransposons, which are characterized by the presence of long terminal repeats (LTRs) at both ends; and non-LTR TE, which lacks repeats. Both the LINE1, or L1, and Alu genes represent non-LTR TE families. L1 elements average about 6 kilobases in length. By contrast, Alu elements average only a few hundred nucleotides, making them a short interspersed transposable element, or SINE.

Alu is particularly prolific, originating in primates and expanding in a relatively short time to about 1 million copies per cell in humans. L1 is also common in humans; although it is not present in as many copies as Alu, its larger size means that this element constitutes approximately 15%-17% of the human genome (Kazazian & Moran, 1998; Slotkin & Martienssen, 2007). In humans, these non-LTR TEs are the only active class of transposons; LTR retrotransposons and DNA transposons are just ancient genomic relics and are not capable of hopping.

Autonomous and non-autonomous transposons

Both class 1 and class 2 TEs can be autonomous or non-autonomous. Autonomous TEs can move on their own, while non-autonomous elements require the presence of other TEs to move. This is because nonautonomous elements lack the transposase or reverse transcriptase gene needed for their transposition, so they must “borrow” these proteins from another element to move. Ac elements, for example, are autonomous because they can move on their own, while Ds elements are not autonomous because they require the presence of Ac to transpose.

What Jumping Genes Do (Besides Jumping)

The fact that about half of the human genome is made up of TEs, with a significant portion of the L1 and Alu retrotransposons, raises an important question: What do all these jumping genes do, besides jump? Much of what a transposon does depends on where it lands. Landing inside a gene can result in a mutation, as was discovered when L1 insertions into the factor VIII gene caused haemophilia (Kazazian et al., 1988). Similarly, a few years later, the researchers found L1 on the APC genes in colon cancer cells, but not on the APC genes in healthy cells in the same individuals. This confirms that L1 is transposed in mammalian somatic cells and that this element could play a causal role in disease development (Miki et al., 1992).

Silencing and Transposons

Unlike L1, most TEs appear to be silent; in other words, these elements do not produce a phenotypic effect nor do they actively move through the genome. At least that has been the general scientific consensus. Some silenced TEs are inactive because they have mutations that affect their ability to move from one chromosomal location to another; others are perfectly intact and capable of movement but are kept inactive by epigenetic defence mechanisms such as DNA methylation, chromatin remodelling, and miRNAs. In chromatin remodelling, for example, chemical modifications to chromatin proteins cause chromatin to shrink so much in certain areas of the genome that genes and TEs in those areas are silenced because transcription enzymes simply can’t access them.

Another example of transposon silencing involves plants of the genus Arabidopsis. Researchers studying these plants have discovered that they contain more than 20 different mutator transposon sequences (a type of transposon identified in maize). In wild-type plants, these sequences are methylated or silenced. However, in plants that are defective for one of the enzymes responsible for methylation, these transposons are transcribed. Furthermore, several different mutant phenotypes have been explored in methylation-deficient plants, and these phenotypes have been linked to transposon insertions (Miura et al., 2001).

Based on studies like these, scientists know that some ETs are epigenetically silenced; in recent years, however, researchers have begun to question whether certain TEs might have a role in epigenetic silencing. Interestingly, it was Barbara McClintock who first speculated that TEs might play this type of regulatory role (McClintock, 1951). Scientists have taken decades to collect enough evidence to consider that perhaps McClintock’s speculation had an ounce of truth.

Transposons can encode siRNAs that mediate their own silencing

Because transposon movement can be destructive, it is not surprising that most transposon sequences in the human genome are silent, allowing this genome to remain relatively stable, despite the prevalence of TE. In fact, the researchers believe that of the 17% of the human genome that is encoded by L1-related sequences, only about 100 active L1 elements remain. Furthermore, the research suggests that even these few remaining active transposons are inhibited from jumping in a variety of ways that go beyond epigenetic silencing.

For example, in human cells, small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), also known as RNAi, can prevent transposition. RNAi is a natural mechanism that eukaryotes often use to regulate gene expression. What is especially interesting about this situation is that the siRNAs that interfere with L1 activity are derived from the 5′ untranslated region (5′ UTR) of LTR L1. Specifically, the 5’UTR of the L1 promoter encodes a sense promoter that transcribes L1 genes, as well as an antisense promoter that transcribes antisense RNA. Yang and Kazazian (2006) showed that this results in homologous sequences that can hybridize, thus forming a double-stranded RNA molecule that can serve as a substrate for RNAi. Furthermore, when the researchers inhibited endogenous siRNA silencing mechanisms, they observed an increase in L1 transcripts, suggesting that L1 transcription is indeed inhibited by siRNA.

Transposons are not always destructive

Not all transposon jumping has harmful effects. Indeed, transposons may drive the evolution of genomes by facilitating translocation of genomic sequences, exon shuffling, and double-strand break repair. Insertions and transpositions can also alter phenotypes and gene regulatory regions. In the case of the medaka fish, for example, the DNA transposon Tol2 is directly related to pigmentation. A highly inbred line of these fish was shown to have a variety of pigmentation patterns.

In the members of this line in which the Tol2 transposon jumped “cleanly” (ie, without removing other parts of the genomic sequence), the fish were albino. But when Tol2 did not jump cleanly from the regulatory region, the result was a wide range of hereditary pigmentation patterns (Koga et al., 2006).

The fact that transposable elements are not always perfectly removed and can take up genomic sequences during the journey has also resulted in a phenomenon scientists call exon shuffling. Exon shuffling results in the juxtaposition of two previously unrelated exons, usually by rearrangement, potentially creating new gene products (Moran et al., 1999).

The ability of transposons to increase genetic diversity, coupled with the ability of the genome to inhibit most TE activity, results in a balance that makes transposable elements an important part of gene evolution and regulation in all organisms that carry these sequences.

Evaporation-Driven Flow in Micropillar Arrays: Transport Dynamics and Chemical Analysis under Varied Sample and Ambient Conditions

Evaporation-Driven Flow in Micropillar Arrays: Transport Dynamics and Chemical Analysis under Varied Sample and Ambient Conditions
Microfluidic circulation in lab-on-a-chip gadgets is usually very delicate to the variable bodily properties of advanced samples, e.g., organic fluids. Here, evaporation-driven fluid transport (transpiration) is achieved in a configuration that’s insensitive to interfacial pressure, salinity, and viscosity over a variety. Micropillar arrays (“pillar cuvettes”) have been preloaded by wicking a identified risky fluid (water) and then including a microliter pattern of salt, surfactant, sugar, or saliva answer to the loading zone.
As the preloaded fluid evaporates, the pattern is reliably drawn from a reservoir by way of the pillar array at a fee outlined by the evaporation of the preloaded fluid (sometimes nL/s). Including a reagent in the preloaded fluid permits photometric reactions to happen on the boundary between the 2 fluids. In this configuration, a photometric sign enhancement is noticed and chemical evaluation is unbiased of each humidity and temperature. The means to reliably transport and sense an analyte in microliter volumes with out concern over salt, surfactant, viscosity (in half), humidity, and temperature is a exceptional benefit for analytical functions.
Polyagglutination is a uncommon entity in immunohematology and unusually presents in a wholesome blood donor. The basic presentation was described in the literature in affiliation with bacterial infections, which end result in the publicity of crypt antigens. Nowadays, polyagglutination is never detected on account of using monoclonal antisera. Our case report describes the presence of Tn polyagglutination in a wholesome grownup blood donor with no prior historical past of any an infection in the current previous.
Immunohematology work-up for incompatible cross-match was performed in the serology lab utilizing commercially procured antisera and column agglutination gel card (Tulip Diagnostics India Pvt. Ltd, Goa, India). The three cell-screening panel was procured commercially (ID Dia cell I, II, III; Bio-Rad, Switzerland), and in-house lectin was ready as per the usual methodology.We have come throughout a case of incompatible cross-match with damaging antibody display screen, auto-control, and Negative direct coombs take a look at. Cross-match with a number of grownup serum and twine serum offers us a clue in the direction of polyagglutination. Further, Polyagglutination was confirmed serologically utilizing anti-A1 lectin and later concludes of Tn kind by lectin ready in-house from Salvia Sclarea.

The prolonged lipid panel assay: a clinically-deployed high-throughput nuclear magnetic resonance methodology for the simultaneous measurement of lipids and Apolipoprotein B

Standard lipid panel assays using chemical/enzymatic strategies measure complete ldl cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), and high-density lipoprotein ldl cholesterol (HDL-C), from that are calculated estimates of low-density lipoprotein ldl cholesterol (LDL-C). These lipid measures are used universally to information administration of atherosclerotic heart problems danger. Apolipoprotein B (apoB) is usually acknowledged to be superior to LDL-C for lipid-lowering therapeutic decision-making, however apoB immunoassays are carried out comparatively sometimes as a result of added analytic value.
The goal of this research was to develop and validate the efficiency of a speedy, high-throughput, reagent-less assay producing an “Extended Lipid Panel” (ELP) that features apoB, utilizing the Vantera® nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analyzer platform already deployed clinically for lipoprotein particle and different testing. Partial least squares regression fashions, utilizing as enter an outlined area of proton NMR spectra of plasma or serum, have been created to concurrently quantify TC, TG, HDL-C, and apoB. Large coaching units (n > ~ 1000) of affected person sera analyzed independently for lipids and apoB by chemical strategies have been employed to make sure prediction fashions replicate the extensive lipid compositional variety of the inhabitants. The analytical efficiency of the NMR ELP assay was comprehensively evaluated.
Excellent settlement was demonstrated between chemically-measured and ELP assay values of TC, TG, HDL-C and apoB with correlation coefficients starting from 0.980 to 0.997. Within-run precision research measured utilizing low, medium, and excessive stage serum swimming pools gave coefficients of variation for the four analytes starting from 1.Zero to three.8% for the low, 1.Zero to 1.7% for the medium, and 0.9 to 1.3% for the excessive swimming pools. Corresponding values for within-lab precision over 20 days have been 1.four to three.6%, 1.2 to 2.3%, and 1.Zero to 1.9%, respectively.
Independent testing at three websites over 5 days produced extremely constant assay outcomes. No main interference was noticed from 38 endogenous or exogenous substances examined. Extensive assay efficiency evaluations validate that the NMR ELP assay is environment friendly, strong, and considerably equal to plain chemistry assays for the scientific measurement of lipids and apoB. Routine reporting of apoB alongside commonplace lipid measures may facilitate extra widespread utilization of apoB for scientific decision-making.
Evaporation-Driven Flow in Micropillar Arrays: Transport Dynamics and Chemical Analysis under Varied Sample and Ambient Conditions

Antibody Printing Technologies

Antibody microarrays are routinely employed in the lab and in the clinic for finding out protein expression, protein-protein, and protein-drug interactions. The microarray format reduces the dimensions scale at which organic and biochemical interactions happen, resulting in giant reductions in reagent consumption and dealing with occasions whereas growing general experimental throughput. Specifically, antibody microarrays, as a platform, provide numerous totally different benefits over conventional strategies in the areas of drug discovery and diagnostics. While numerous totally different strategies and approaches have been developed for creating micro and nanoscale antibody arrays, points referring to sensitivity, value, and reproducibility persist.

Advanced Glycation End Product (AGE) Antibody (FITC)

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Description: Recombinant Pan-species Advanced Glycation End Product expressed in: Human

Native Advanced Glycation End Product (AGE)

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Description: Recombinant Pan-species Advanced Glycation End Product expressed in: Natural extract

Advanced Glycation End Product (AGE) Protein

20-abx168580
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Advanced Glycation End Product (AGE) Polyclonal Antibody (General)

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Description: A Rabbit polyclonal antibody against General Advanced Glycation End Product (AGE)

Advanced Glycation End Product (AGE) Monoclonal Antibody (General)

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Description: A Mouse monoclonal antibody against General Advanced Glycation End Product (AGE)

Advanced Glycosylation End Product Specific Receptor (AGER) Antibody

20-abx130064
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Advanced Glycosylation End Product-Specific Receptor (AGER) Antibody

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Advanced Glycosylation End Product Specific Receptor (AGER) Antibody

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Advanced Glycosylation End Product Specific Receptor (AGER) Antibody

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Advanced Glycosylation End Product Specific Receptor (AGER) Antibody

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Advanced Glycosylation End Product Specific Receptor (AGER) Antibody

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Advanced Glycosylation End Product Specific Receptor (AGER) Antibody

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EUR 481

Advanced Glycosylation End Product Specific Receptor (AGER) Antibody

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Advanced Glycosylation End Product Specific Receptor (AGER) Antibody

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Advanced Glycosylation End Product Specific Receptor (AGER) Antibody

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Advanced Glycosylation End Product Specific Receptor (AGER) Antibody

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Advanced Glycosylation End Product Specific Receptor (AGER) Antibody

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Advanced Glycosylation End Product-Specific Receptor (AGER) Antibody

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Advanced glycosylation end product-specific receptor Polyclonal Antibody

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Pig Advanced Glycosylation End Products ELISA kit

E07A0002-192T 192 tests
EUR 1270
Description: A sandwich ELISA for quantitative measurement of Porcine Advanced Glycosylation End Products in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. This is a high quality ELISA kit developped for optimal performance with samples from the particular species.

Pig Advanced Glycosylation End Products ELISA kit

E07A0002-48 1 plate of 48 wells
EUR 520
Description: A sandwich ELISA for quantitative measurement of Porcine Advanced Glycosylation End Products in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. This is a high quality ELISA kit developped for optimal performance with samples from the particular species.

Pig Advanced Glycosylation End Products ELISA kit

E07A0002-96 1 plate of 96 wells
EUR 685
Description: A sandwich ELISA for quantitative measurement of Porcine Advanced Glycosylation End Products in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. This is a high quality ELISA kit developped for optimal performance with samples from the particular species.

Monkey Advanced Glycosylation End Products ELISA kit

E09A0002-192T 192 tests
EUR 1270
Description: A sandwich ELISA for quantitative measurement of Monkey Advanced Glycosylation End Products in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. This is a high quality ELISA kit developped for optimal performance with samples from the particular species.

Monkey Advanced Glycosylation End Products ELISA kit

E09A0002-48 1 plate of 48 wells
EUR 520
Description: A sandwich ELISA for quantitative measurement of Monkey Advanced Glycosylation End Products in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. This is a high quality ELISA kit developped for optimal performance with samples from the particular species.

Monkey Advanced Glycosylation End Products ELISA kit

E09A0002-96 1 plate of 96 wells
EUR 685
Description: A sandwich ELISA for quantitative measurement of Monkey Advanced Glycosylation End Products in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. This is a high quality ELISA kit developped for optimal performance with samples from the particular species.

Advanced Glycation End Products (AGEs) Assay Kit

K929-100
EUR 419

Goat Advanced Glycosylation End Products ELISA kit

E06A0002-192T 192 tests
EUR 1270
Description: A sandwich ELISA for quantitative measurement of Goat Advanced Glycosylation End Products in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. This is a high quality ELISA kit developped for optimal performance with samples from the particular species.

Dog Advanced Glycosylation End Products ELISA kit

E08A0002-192T 192 tests
EUR 1270
Description: A sandwich ELISA for quantitative measurement of Canine Advanced Glycosylation End Products in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. This is a high quality ELISA kit developped for optimal performance with samples from the particular species.

Dog Advanced Glycosylation End Products ELISA kit

E08A0002-48 1 plate of 48 wells
EUR 520
Description: A sandwich ELISA for quantitative measurement of Canine Advanced Glycosylation End Products in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. This is a high quality ELISA kit developped for optimal performance with samples from the particular species.

Dog Advanced Glycosylation End Products ELISA kit

E08A0002-96 1 plate of 96 wells
EUR 685
Description: A sandwich ELISA for quantitative measurement of Canine Advanced Glycosylation End Products in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. This is a high quality ELISA kit developped for optimal performance with samples from the particular species.

Advanced Glycation End Product (AGE) Protein (Active)

20-abx651294
  • EUR 648.00
  • EUR 272.00
  • EUR 1943.00
  • EUR 759.00
  • EUR 467.00
  • 100 ug
  • 10 ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 50 ug

Advanced Glycation End Product (AGE) ELISA Kit

abx576530-96tests 96 tests
EUR 746

Advanced Glycation End Product (AGE) ELISA Kit

abx255064-96tests 96 tests
EUR 746

Advanced Glycosylation End Product-Specific Receptor Protein

20-abx263043
  • EUR 328.00
  • EUR 7358.00
  • EUR 230.00
  • 10 ug
  • 1 mg
  • 2 µg

Advanced Glycation End Product (AGE) CLIA Kit

20-abx490411
  • EUR 7973.00
  • EUR 4246.00
  • EUR 981.00
  • 10 × 96 tests
  • 5 × 96 tests
  • 96 tests

Advanced Glycation End Product (AGE) ELISA Kit

20-abx150316
  • EUR 7378.00
  • EUR 3933.00
  • EUR 911.00
  • 10 × 96 tests
  • 5 × 96 tests
  • 96 tests

Advanced Glycation End Product (AGE) ELISA Kit

DLR-AGE-Ge-48T 48T
EUR 523
Description: A competitive inhibition quantitative ELISA assay kit for detection of Advanced Glycation End Product (AGE) in samples from serum, plasma, tissue homogenates or other biological fluids.

Advanced Glycation End Product (AGE) ELISA Kit

DLR-AGE-Ge-96T 96T
EUR 681
Description: A competitive inhibition quantitative ELISA assay kit for detection of Advanced Glycation End Product (AGE) in samples from serum, plasma, tissue homogenates or other biological fluids.

Advanced Glycation End Product (AGE) Polyclonal Antibody (General), APC

4-PAB353Ge01-APC
  • EUR 329.00
  • EUR 3041.00
  • EUR 854.00
  • EUR 416.00
  • EUR 212.00
  • 100ul
  • 10ml
  • 1ml
  • 200ul
  • 20ul
Description: A Rabbit polyclonal antibody against General Advanced Glycation End Product (AGE). This antibody is labeled with APC.

Advanced Glycation End Product (AGE) Polyclonal Antibody (General), Biotinylated

4-PAB353Ge01-Biotin
  • EUR 299.00
  • EUR 2288.00
  • EUR 684.00
  • EUR 363.00
  • EUR 214.00
  • 100ul
  • 10ml
  • 1ml
  • 200ul
  • 20ul
Description: A Rabbit polyclonal antibody against General Advanced Glycation End Product (AGE). This antibody is labeled with Biotin.

Advanced Glycation End Product (AGE) Polyclonal Antibody (General), Cy3

4-PAB353Ge01-Cy3
  • EUR 397.00
  • EUR 4013.00
  • EUR 1097.00
  • EUR 513.00
  • EUR 241.00
  • 100ul
  • 10ml
  • 1ml
  • 200ul
  • 20ul
Description: A Rabbit polyclonal antibody against General Advanced Glycation End Product (AGE). This antibody is labeled with Cy3.

Advanced Glycation End Product (AGE) Polyclonal Antibody (General), FITC

4-PAB353Ge01-FITC
  • EUR 283.00
  • EUR 2452.00
  • EUR 703.00
  • EUR 353.00
  • EUR 189.00
  • 100ul
  • 10ml
  • 1ml
  • 200ul
  • 20ul
Description: A Rabbit polyclonal antibody against General Advanced Glycation End Product (AGE). This antibody is labeled with FITC.

Advanced Glycation End Product (AGE) Polyclonal Antibody (General), HRP

4-PAB353Ge01-HRP
  • EUR 302.00
  • EUR 2652.00
  • EUR 756.00
  • EUR 377.00
  • EUR 200.00
  • 100ul
  • 10ml
  • 1ml
  • 200ul
  • 20ul
Description: A Rabbit polyclonal antibody against General Advanced Glycation End Product (AGE). This antibody is labeled with HRP.

Advanced Glycation End Product (AGE) Polyclonal Antibody (General), PE

4-PAB353Ge01-PE
  • EUR 283.00
  • EUR 2452.00
  • EUR 703.00
  • EUR 353.00
  • EUR 189.00
  • 100ul
  • 10ml
  • 1ml
  • 200ul
  • 20ul
Description: A Rabbit polyclonal antibody against General Advanced Glycation End Product (AGE). This antibody is labeled with PE.

Advanced Glycation End Product (AGE) Monoclonal Antibody (General), APC

4-MAB353Ge21-APC
  • EUR 341.00
  • EUR 3221.00
  • EUR 899.00
  • EUR 434.00
  • EUR 217.00
  • 100ul
  • 10ml
  • 1ml
  • 200ul
  • 20ul
Description: A Mouse monoclonal antibody against General Advanced Glycation End Product (AGE). This antibody is labeled with APC.

Advanced Glycation End Product (AGE) Monoclonal Antibody (General), Biotinylated

4-MAB353Ge21-Biotin
  • EUR 309.00
  • EUR 2420.00
  • EUR 717.00
  • EUR 377.00
  • EUR 217.00
  • 100ul
  • 10ml
  • 1ml
  • 200ul
  • 20ul
Description: A Mouse monoclonal antibody against General Advanced Glycation End Product (AGE). This antibody is labeled with Biotin.

Advanced Glycation End Product (AGE) Monoclonal Antibody (General), Cy3

4-MAB353Ge21-Cy3
  • EUR 414.00
  • EUR 4253.00
  • EUR 1157.00
  • EUR 537.00
  • EUR 248.00
  • 100ul
  • 10ml
  • 1ml
  • 200ul
  • 20ul
Description: A Mouse monoclonal antibody against General Advanced Glycation End Product (AGE). This antibody is labeled with Cy3.

Advanced Glycation End Product (AGE) Monoclonal Antibody (General), FITC

4-MAB353Ge21-FITC
  • EUR 293.00
  • EUR 2596.00
  • EUR 739.00
  • EUR 367.00
  • EUR 194.00
  • 100ul
  • 10ml
  • 1ml
  • 200ul
  • 20ul
Description: A Mouse monoclonal antibody against General Advanced Glycation End Product (AGE). This antibody is labeled with FITC.

Advanced Glycation End Product (AGE) Monoclonal Antibody (General), HRP

4-MAB353Ge21-HRP
  • EUR 312.00
  • EUR 2808.00
  • EUR 795.00
  • EUR 393.00
  • EUR 205.00
  • 100ul
  • 10ml
  • 1ml
  • 200ul
  • 20ul
Description: A Mouse monoclonal antibody against General Advanced Glycation End Product (AGE). This antibody is labeled with HRP.

Advanced Glycation End Product (AGE) Monoclonal Antibody (General), PE

4-MAB353Ge21-PE
  • EUR 293.00
  • EUR 2596.00
  • EUR 739.00
  • EUR 367.00
  • EUR 194.00
  • 100ul
  • 10ml
  • 1ml
  • 200ul
  • 20ul
Description: A Mouse monoclonal antibody against General Advanced Glycation End Product (AGE). This antibody is labeled with PE.

Advanced Glycosylation End Product-Specific Receptor (AGER) Antibody (FITC)

20-abx106525
  • EUR 411.00
  • EUR 1845.00
  • EUR 599.00
  • EUR 182.00
  • EUR 300.00
  • 100 ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 20 ug
  • 50 ug

Advanced Glycosylation End Product-Specific Receptor (AGER) Antibody (HRP)

20-abx107942
  • EUR 411.00
  • EUR 1845.00
  • EUR 599.00
  • EUR 182.00
  • EUR 300.00
  • 100 ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 20 ug
  • 50 ug

Advanced Glycosylation End Product Specific Receptor (AGER) Antibody Pair

abx117558-1pair5x96wellplates 1 pair (5x96 well plates)
EUR 1010

Advanced Glycosylation End Product Specific Receptor (AGER) Antibody Pair

20-abx370664
  • EUR 1706.00
  • EUR 1094.00
  • 10 × 96 tests
  • 5 × 96 tests

Advanced Glycosylation End Product-Specific Receptor (AGER) Antibody (Biotin)

20-abx105108
  • EUR 411.00
  • EUR 1845.00
  • EUR 599.00
  • EUR 182.00
  • EUR 300.00
  • 100 ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 20 ug
  • 50 ug

Advanced glycosylation end product-specific receptor Polyclonal Conjugated Antibody

C42577 100ul
EUR 397

Mouse advanced glycation end products, AGEs ELISA Kit

E0263m 96 Tests
EUR 678

Rat advanced glycation end products, AGEs ELISA Kit

ELA-E0263r 96 Tests
EUR 886

Rat advanced glycation end products,AGEs ELISA Kit

CN-01677R1 96T
EUR 458

Rat advanced glycation end products,AGEs ELISA Kit

CN-01677R2 48T
EUR 307

Mouse advanced glycation end products,AGEs ELISA Kit

CN-02549M1 96T
EUR 471

Mouse advanced glycation end products,AGEs ELISA Kit

CN-02549M2 48T
EUR 322

Human advanced glycation end products,AGEs ELISA Kit

CN-04128H1 96T
EUR 473

Human advanced glycation end products,AGEs ELISA Kit

CN-04128H2 48T
EUR 323

Human Hemoglobin advanced glycosylation end products ELISA kit

E01H0219-192T 192 tests
EUR 1270
Description: A competitive ELISA for quantitative measurement of Human Hemoglobin advanced glycosylation end products in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. This is a high quality ELISA kit developped for optimal performance with samples from the particular species.

Human Hemoglobin advanced glycosylation end products ELISA kit

E01H0219-48 1 plate of 48 wells
EUR 520
Description: A competitive ELISA for quantitative measurement of Human Hemoglobin advanced glycosylation end products in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. This is a high quality ELISA kit developped for optimal performance with samples from the particular species.

Human Hemoglobin advanced glycosylation end products ELISA kit

E01H0219-96 1 plate of 96 wells
EUR 685
Description: A competitive ELISA for quantitative measurement of Human Hemoglobin advanced glycosylation end products in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. This is a high quality ELISA kit developped for optimal performance with samples from the particular species.

Mouse Hemoglobin advanced glycosylation end products ELISA kit

E03H0219-192T 192 tests
EUR 1270
Description: A competitive ELISA for quantitative measurement of Mouse Hemoglobin advanced glycosylation end products in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. This is a high quality ELISA kit developped for optimal performance with samples from the particular species.

Mouse Hemoglobin advanced glycosylation end products ELISA kit

E03H0219-48 1 plate of 48 wells
EUR 520
Description: A competitive ELISA for quantitative measurement of Mouse Hemoglobin advanced glycosylation end products in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. This is a high quality ELISA kit developped for optimal performance with samples from the particular species.

Mouse Hemoglobin advanced glycosylation end products ELISA kit

E03H0219-96 1 plate of 96 wells
EUR 685
Description: A competitive ELISA for quantitative measurement of Mouse Hemoglobin advanced glycosylation end products in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. This is a high quality ELISA kit developped for optimal performance with samples from the particular species.

Rat Hemoglobin advanced glycosylation end products ELISA kit

E02H0219-192T 192 tests
EUR 1270
Description: A competitive ELISA for quantitative measurement of Rat Hemoglobin advanced glycosylation end products in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. This is a high quality ELISA kit developped for optimal performance with samples from the particular species.

Rat Hemoglobin advanced glycosylation end products ELISA kit

E02H0219-48 1 plate of 48 wells
EUR 520
Description: A competitive ELISA for quantitative measurement of Rat Hemoglobin advanced glycosylation end products in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. This is a high quality ELISA kit developped for optimal performance with samples from the particular species.

Rat Hemoglobin advanced glycosylation end products ELISA kit

E02H0219-96 1 plate of 96 wells
EUR 685
Description: A competitive ELISA for quantitative measurement of Rat Hemoglobin advanced glycosylation end products in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. This is a high quality ELISA kit developped for optimal performance with samples from the particular species.

Human Advanced glycosylation end product-specific receptor (AGER)

1-CSB-RP142074h
  • EUR 380.00
  • EUR 214.00
  • EUR 1309.00
  • EUR 560.00
  • EUR 873.00
  • EUR 262.00
  • 100ug
  • 10ug
  • 1MG
  • 200ug
  • 500ug
  • 50ug
Description: Recombinant Human Advanced glycosylation end product-specific receptor(AGER),partial expressed in E.coli

Recombinant Advanced Glycosylation End Product Specific Receptor (AGER)

4-RPA645Hu01
  • EUR 535.46
  • EUR 246.00
  • EUR 1732.96
  • EUR 644.32
  • EUR 1188.64
  • EUR 421.00
  • EUR 4182.40
  • 100 ug
  • 10ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 500 ug
  • 50ug
  • 5 mg
Description: Recombinant Human Advanced Glycosylation End Product Specific Receptor expressed in: E.coli

Recombinant Advanced Glycosylation End Product Specific Receptor (AGER)

4-RPA645Mu01
  • EUR 476.32
  • EUR 230.00
  • EUR 1511.20
  • EUR 570.40
  • EUR 1040.80
  • EUR 382.00
  • EUR 3628.00
  • 100 ug
  • 10ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 500 ug
  • 50ug
  • 5 mg
Description: Recombinant Mouse Advanced Glycosylation End Product Specific Receptor expressed in: E.coli

Recombinant Advanced Glycosylation End Product Specific Receptor (AGER)

4-RPA645Ra01
  • EUR 519.33
  • EUR 242.00
  • EUR 1672.48
  • EUR 624.16
  • EUR 1148.32
  • EUR 410.00
  • EUR 4031.20
  • 100 ug
  • 10ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 500 ug
  • 50ug
  • 5 mg
Description: Recombinant Rat Advanced Glycosylation End Product Specific Receptor expressed in: E.coli

Monkey Hemoglobin advanced glycosylation end products ELISA kit

E09H0219-192T 192 tests
EUR 1270
Description: A competitive ELISA for quantitative measurement of Monkey Hemoglobin advanced glycosylation end products in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. This is a high quality ELISA kit developped for optimal performance with samples from the particular species.

Monkey Hemoglobin advanced glycosylation end products ELISA kit

E09H0219-48 1 plate of 48 wells
EUR 520
Description: A competitive ELISA for quantitative measurement of Monkey Hemoglobin advanced glycosylation end products in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. This is a high quality ELISA kit developped for optimal performance with samples from the particular species.

Monkey Hemoglobin advanced glycosylation end products ELISA kit

E09H0219-96 1 plate of 96 wells
EUR 685
Description: A competitive ELISA for quantitative measurement of Monkey Hemoglobin advanced glycosylation end products in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. This is a high quality ELISA kit developped for optimal performance with samples from the particular species.

Human advanced glycation end products, AGEs ELISA Kit

CSB-E09412h-24T 1 plate of 24 wells
EUR 165
Description: Quantitativesandwich ELISA kit for measuring Human advanced glycation end products, AGEs in samples from serum, plasma, tissue homogenates. A new trial version of the kit, which allows you to test the kit in your application at a reasonable price.

Human advanced glycation end products, AGEs ELISA Kit

1-CSB-E09412h
  • EUR 900.00
  • EUR 5476.00
  • EUR 2900.00
  • 1 plate of 96 wells
  • 10 plates of 96 wells each
  • 5 plates of 96 wells each
Description: Quantitativesandwich ELISA kit for measuring Human advanced glycation end products, AGEs in samples from serum, plasma, tissue homogenates. Now available in a cost efficient pack of 5 plates of 96 wells each, conveniently packed along with the other reagents in 5 separate kits.

Rat advanced glycation end products, AGEs ELISA Kit

CSB-E09413r-24T 1 plate of 24 wells
EUR 165
Description: Quantitativesandwich ELISA kit for measuring Rat advanced glycation end products, AGEs in samples from serum, plasma, tissue homogenates. A new trial version of the kit, which allows you to test the kit in your application at a reasonable price.

Rat advanced glycation end products, AGEs ELISA Kit

1-CSB-E09413r
  • EUR 967.00
  • EUR 5925.00
  • EUR 3134.00
  • 1 plate of 96 wells
  • 10 plates of 96 wells each
  • 5 plates of 96 wells each
Description: Quantitativesandwich ELISA kit for measuring Rat advanced glycation end products, AGEs in samples from serum, plasma, tissue homogenates. Now available in a cost efficient pack of 5 plates of 96 wells each, conveniently packed along with the other reagents in 5 separate kits.

Mouse advanced glycation end products, AGEs ELISA Kit

CSB-E09414m-24T 1 plate of 24 wells
EUR 165
Description: Quantitativesandwich ELISA kit for measuring Mouse advanced glycation end products, AGEs in samples from serum, plasma, tissue homogenates. A new trial version of the kit, which allows you to test the kit in your application at a reasonable price.

Mouse advanced glycation end products, AGEs ELISA Kit

1-CSB-E09414m
  • EUR 946.00
  • EUR 5782.00
  • EUR 3060.00
  • 1 plate of 96 wells
  • 10 plates of 96 wells each
  • 5 plates of 96 wells each
Description: Quantitativesandwich ELISA kit for measuring Mouse advanced glycation end products, AGEs in samples from serum, plasma, tissue homogenates. Now available in a cost efficient pack of 5 plates of 96 wells each, conveniently packed along with the other reagents in 5 separate kits.

Dog Hemoglobin advanced glycosylation end products ELISA kit

E08H0219-192T 192 tests
EUR 1270
Description: A competitive ELISA for quantitative measurement of Canine Hemoglobin advanced glycosylation end products in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. This is a high quality ELISA kit developped for optimal performance with samples from the particular species.

Dog Hemoglobin advanced glycosylation end products ELISA kit

E08H0219-48 1 plate of 48 wells
EUR 520
Description: A competitive ELISA for quantitative measurement of Canine Hemoglobin advanced glycosylation end products in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. This is a high quality ELISA kit developped for optimal performance with samples from the particular species.

Dog Hemoglobin advanced glycosylation end products ELISA kit

E08H0219-96 1 plate of 96 wells
EUR 685
Description: A competitive ELISA for quantitative measurement of Canine Hemoglobin advanced glycosylation end products in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. This is a high quality ELISA kit developped for optimal performance with samples from the particular species.

Pig Hemoglobin advanced glycosylation end products ELISA kit

E07H0219-192T 192 tests
EUR 1270
Description: A competitive ELISA for quantitative measurement of Porcine Hemoglobin advanced glycosylation end products in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. This is a high quality ELISA kit developped for optimal performance with samples from the particular species.

Pig Hemoglobin advanced glycosylation end products ELISA kit

E07H0219-48 1 plate of 48 wells
EUR 520
Description: A competitive ELISA for quantitative measurement of Porcine Hemoglobin advanced glycosylation end products in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. This is a high quality ELISA kit developped for optimal performance with samples from the particular species.

Pig Hemoglobin advanced glycosylation end products ELISA kit

E07H0219-96 1 plate of 96 wells
EUR 685
Description: A competitive ELISA for quantitative measurement of Porcine Hemoglobin advanced glycosylation end products in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. This is a high quality ELISA kit developped for optimal performance with samples from the particular species.

Rabbit Hemoglobin advanced glycosylation end products ELISA kit

E04H0219-192T 192 tests
EUR 1270
Description: A competitive ELISA for quantitative measurement of Rabbit Hemoglobin advanced glycosylation end products in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. This is a high quality ELISA kit developped for optimal performance with samples from the particular species.

Rabbit Hemoglobin advanced glycosylation end products ELISA kit

E04H0219-48 1 plate of 48 wells
EUR 520
Description: A competitive ELISA for quantitative measurement of Rabbit Hemoglobin advanced glycosylation end products in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. This is a high quality ELISA kit developped for optimal performance with samples from the particular species.

Rabbit Hemoglobin advanced glycosylation end products ELISA kit

E04H0219-96 1 plate of 96 wells
EUR 685
Description: A competitive ELISA for quantitative measurement of Rabbit Hemoglobin advanced glycosylation end products in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. This is a high quality ELISA kit developped for optimal performance with samples from the particular species.

Goat Hemoglobin advanced glycosylation end products ELISA kit

E06H0219-192T 192 tests
EUR 1270
Description: A competitive ELISA for quantitative measurement of Goat Hemoglobin advanced glycosylation end products in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. This is a high quality ELISA kit developped for optimal performance with samples from the particular species.

Goat Hemoglobin advanced glycosylation end products ELISA kit

E06H0219-48 1 plate of 48 wells
EUR 520
Description: A competitive ELISA for quantitative measurement of Goat Hemoglobin advanced glycosylation end products in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. This is a high quality ELISA kit developped for optimal performance with samples from the particular species.

Goat Hemoglobin advanced glycosylation end products ELISA kit

E06H0219-96 1 plate of 96 wells
EUR 685
Description: A competitive ELISA for quantitative measurement of Goat Hemoglobin advanced glycosylation end products in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. This is a high quality ELISA kit developped for optimal performance with samples from the particular species.

General Advanced Glycation End Product (AGE) ELISA Kit

CEB353Ge-10x96wellstestplate 10x96-wells test plate
EUR 4803.5
Description: This is Competitive Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of General Advanced Glycation End Product (AGE) in serum, plasma and other biological fluids.

General Advanced Glycation End Product (AGE) ELISA Kit

CEB353Ge-1x48wellstestplate 1x48-wells test plate
EUR 483.23
Description: This is Competitive Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of General Advanced Glycation End Product (AGE) in serum, plasma and other biological fluids.

General Advanced Glycation End Product (AGE) ELISA Kit

CEB353Ge-1x96wellstestplate 1x96-wells test plate
EUR 647.47
Description: This is Competitive Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of General Advanced Glycation End Product (AGE) in serum, plasma and other biological fluids.

General Advanced Glycation End Product (AGE) ELISA Kit

CEB353Ge-5x96wellstestplate 5x96-wells test plate
EUR 2613.62
Description: This is Competitive Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of General Advanced Glycation End Product (AGE) in serum, plasma and other biological fluids.

General Advanced Glycation End Product (AGE) ELISA Kit

4-CEB353Ge
  • EUR 4854.00
  • EUR 2564.00
  • EUR 648.00
  • 10 plates of 96 wells
  • 5 plates of 96 wells
  • 1 plate of 96 wells
Description: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on the Competitive Inhibition method for detection of General Advanced Glycation End Product (AGE) in samples from serum, plasma and other biological fluids with no significant corss-reactivity with analogues from other species.

for Advanced Glycation End Product (AGE)ELISA kit

HEB353Ge-10x96wellstestplate 10x96-wells test plate
EUR 5268.19
Description: This is Competitive Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of for Advanced Glycation End Product (AGE) in serum, plasma and other biological fluids.

for Advanced Glycation End Product (AGE)ELISA kit

HEB353Ge-1x48wellstestplate 1x48-wells test plate
EUR 521.5
Description: This is Competitive Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of for Advanced Glycation End Product (AGE) in serum, plasma and other biological fluids.

for Advanced Glycation End Product (AGE)ELISA kit

HEB353Ge-1x96wellstestplate 1x96-wells test plate
EUR 702.14
Description: This is Competitive Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of for Advanced Glycation End Product (AGE) in serum, plasma and other biological fluids.

for Advanced Glycation End Product (AGE)ELISA kit

HEB353Ge-5x96wellstestplate 5x96-wells test plate
EUR 2859.63
Description: This is Competitive Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of for Advanced Glycation End Product (AGE) in serum, plasma and other biological fluids.

ELISA Kit for Advanced Glycation End Product (AGE)

4-HEB353Ge
  • EUR 5319.00
  • EUR 2810.00
  • EUR 703.00
  • 10 plates of 96 wells
  • 5 plates of 96 wells
  • 1 plate of 96 wells
Description: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on the Competitive Inhibition method for detection of Advanced Glycation End Product (AGE) in samples from serum, plasma and other biological fluids with no significant corss-reactivity with analogues from other species.

Human advanced glycation end products,AGEs ELISA Kit

201-12-0004 96 tests
EUR 440
Description: A quantitative ELISA kit for measuring Human in samples from biological fluids.

Human Advanced Glycation End Product (AGE) ELISA Kit

abx512405-96tests 96 tests
EUR 668

Mouse Advanced Glycation End Product (AGE) ELISA Kit

abx512406-96tests 96 tests
EUR 652

Rat Advanced Glycation End Product (AGE) ELISA Kit

abx512407-96tests 96 tests
EUR 652

Human Advanced Glycation End Product (AGE) ELISA Kit

abx253588-96tests 96 tests
EUR 668

Advanced Glycosylation End Product-Specific Receptor, HEK Protein

20-abx263161
  • EUR 1372.00
  • EUR 328.00
  • EUR 230.00
  • 100 ug
  • 10 ug
  • 2 µg

Rat Advanced Glycation End Product (AGE) ELISA Kit

abx256246-96tests 96 tests
EUR 754

Human Advanced Glycation End Product (AGE) ELISA Kit

20-abx054077
  • EUR 7378.00
  • EUR 3933.00
  • EUR 911.00
  • 10 × 96 tests
  • 5 × 96 tests
  • 96 tests

Recombinant Human Advanced Glycosylation End Product-Specific Receptor

7-06520 2µg Ask for price

Recombinant Human Advanced Glycosylation End Product-Specific Receptor

7-06521 10µg Ask for price

Recombinant Human Advanced Glycosylation End Product-Specific Receptor

7-06522 1mg Ask for price

Mouse advanced glycation end products(AGEs)ELISA Kit

GA-E0602MS-48T 48T
EUR 336

Mouse advanced glycation end products(AGEs)ELISA Kit

GA-E0602MS-96T 96T
EUR 534

Rat advanced glycation end products(AGEs)ELISA Kit

GA-E0614RT-48T 48T
EUR 317

Rat advanced glycation end products(AGEs)ELISA Kit

GA-E0614RT-96T 96T
EUR 496

Human advanced glycation end products(AGEs)ELISA Kit

GA-E0051HM-48T 48T
EUR 289

Human advanced glycation end products(AGEs)ELISA Kit

GA-E0051HM-96T 96T
EUR 466

Rat AGE/ Advanced glycation end-product ELISA Kit

E0037Ra 1 Kit
EUR 571

Mouse AGE/ Advanced glycation end-product ELISA Kit

E0051Mo 1 Kit
EUR 571

Human AGE/ Advanced glycation end-product ELISA Kit

E0080Hu 1 Kit
EUR 571

General Advanced Glycation End Product ELISA Kit (AGE)

RK00619 96 Tests
EUR 521

ELISA kit for Human Advanced glycation end-product

EK1568 96 tests
EUR 553
Description: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit for quantification of Human Advanced glycation end-product in samples from serum, plasma, tissue homogenates and other biological fluids.

ELISA kit for Rat Advanced glycation end-product

EK1569 96 tests
EUR 553
Description: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit for quantification of Rat Advanced glycation end-product in samples from serum, plasma, tissue homogenates and other biological fluids.

ELISA kit for Mouse Advanced glycation end-product

EK5086 96 tests
EUR 553
Description: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit for quantification of Mouse Advanced glycation end-product in samples from serum, plasma, tissue homogenates and other biological fluids.

Human AGE(Advanced glycation end-product) ELISA Kit

EH0622 96T
EUR 567.6
Description: Method of detection: Double Antibody, Sandwich ELISA;Reacts with: Homo sapiens;Sensitivity: 0.188 ng/ml

Rat AGE(Advanced glycation end-product) ELISA Kit

ER0268 96T
EUR 567.6
Description: Method of detection: Double Antibody, Sandwich ELISA;Reacts with: Rattus;Sensitivity: 0.188 ng/ml

Rat advanced glycation end products(AGEs)ELISA Kit

QY-E11038 96T
EUR 361

Mouse advanced glycation end products(AGEs)ELISA Kit

QY-E20056 96T
EUR 361

Rabbit advanced glycosylation end products (AGEs)ELISA Kit

QY-E30071 96T
EUR 374

Human advanced glycation end products(AGEs)ELISA Kit

QY-E01118 96T
EUR 361

EZ-DNA Reagents

BS8202 100preps
EUR 88.06

The goal of this assessment is to spotlight present state-of the-art strategies and approaches for creating antibody arrays by offering newest accounts of the sphere whereas discussing potential future instructions. Our outcomes point out that gram quantities of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies could possibly be simply produced in little greater than 6 weeks in repurposed greenhouses with little infrastructure necessities utilizing N. benthamiana as manufacturing platform. Similar procedures could possibly be simply deployed to provide diagnostic reagents and, ultimately, could possibly be tailored for fast therapeutic responses.

Pilot Production of SARS-CoV-2 Related Proteins in Plants: A Proof of Concept for Rapid Repurposing of Indoor Farms Into Biomanufacturing Facilities

Pilot Production of SARS-CoV-2 Related Proteins in Plants: A Proof of Concept for Rapid Repurposing of Indoor Farms Into Biomanufacturing Facilities

The present CoVid-19 disaster is revealing the strengths and the weaknesses of the world’s capability to answer a world well being disaster. A important weak spot has resulted from the extreme centralization of the present biomanufacturing capacities, a matter of nice concern, if not a supply of nationalistic tensions. On the optimistic facet, scientific knowledge and data have been shared at an unprecedented pace fuelled by the preprint phenomena, and this has significantly strengthened our capability to develop new technology-based options.

In this work, we discover how, in a context of fast change of scientific info, plant biofactories can function a fast and simply adaptable answer for native manufacturing of bioreagents, extra particularly recombinant antibodies. For this objective, we examined our capability to provide, in the framework of an educational lab and in a matter of weeks, milligram quantities of six totally different recombinant monoclonal antibodies in opposition to SARS-CoV-2 in Nicotiana benthamiana.

For the design of the antibodies, we took benefit, amongst different knowledge sources, of the DNA sequence info made quickly available by different teams in preprint publications. mAbs have been engineered as single-chain fragments fused to a human gamma Fc and transiently expressed utilizing a viral vector. In parallel, we additionally produced the recombinant SARS-CoV-2 N protein and the receptor binding area (RBD) of the Spike protein in planta and used them to check the binding specificity of the recombinant mAbs. Finally, for two of the antibodies, we assayed a easy scale-up manufacturing protocol based mostly on the extraction of apoplastic fluid.

An environmentally-benign flow-batch system for headspace single-drop microextraction and on-drop conductometric detecting ammonium

This work presents a lab-made automated flow-batch system for headspace single-drop microextraction and on-drop conductometric sensing ammonium. Sample and NaOH answer are concurrently pumped right into a response chamber (RC), the place ammonium is transformed to ammonia by elevating pH. The transformed ammonia then diffuses into the headspace of the RC, and reacts with a 100 mM boric acid drop. The conductivity of the drop is measured by an on-drop conductivity probe, which is made by two stainless-steel contacting electrodes.

The end result exhibits that the growing charge of conductivity has a linear relationship to the ammonium focus in pattern (R2 = 0.9945). This methodology has a linear vary as much as 400 μM, a restrict of detection 2.eight μM, a relative normal deviation of 3.0% (200 μM, n = 10) and carryover coefficient 0.028. Measurements of river waters, lake waters and wastewaters have been demonstrated. The recoveries have achieved from 99.Zero to 114%. This methodology avoids utilizing of dangerous or odorous reagents and follows the idea of inexperienced chemistry.

The worldwide COVID-19 pandemic outburst has triggered a severe public well being problem with growing wants of correct and fast diagnostic and screening testing. This scenario requires an optimized administration of the chemical reagents, the consumables, and the human assets, in order to reply precisely and successfully, controlling the unfold of the illness. Testing on pooled samples maximizes the quantity of examined samples, by minimizing the time and the lab provides wanted. The normal conceptualization of the pooling methodology is predicated on mixing samples collectively in a batch.

Individual testing is required provided that a particular pool displays a optimistic end result. The growth of various hybrid strategies, based mostly on “in home” protocols, using commercially available consumables, in mixture with a dependable pooling methodology would supply an answer, specializing in the higher exploitation of the personnel and the lab provides, permitting for fast screening of a inhabitants in a fairly brief time.

Pilot Production of SARS-CoV-2 Related Proteins in Plants: A Proof of Concept for Rapid Repurposing of Indoor Farms Into Biomanufacturing Facilities

Development of novel lab-on-a-chip platform for high-throughput radioimmunoassay

Radioimmunoassay (RIA) is an especially particular and a extremely delicate sort of immunoassay, however the lengthy incubation time and technology of radioactive wastes restrict the use of RIA. To complement these disadvantages of RIA, we advise a sophisticated sort of RIA based mostly on a lab-on-a-chip (LOC) platform: μ-RIA. We designed a microfluidic chip for RIA and optimized the procedures of μ-RIA evaluation, together with floor modification, immunoreaction time, and washing. Based on the optimized situations, we performed a radioimmunoassay on the μ-RIA platform utilizing a business RIA package.

With the μ-RIA, 5 min are sufficient for evaluation. The quantity of reagent consumption is considerably diminished in contrast with standard RIA. The normal curve with R2 = 0.9951 exhibits that we are able to quantitatively consider the quantity of antigen current in unknown samples. We present the applicability of μ-RIA for the evaluation of biomolecules and the potential of μ-RIA to be a novel platform for high-throughput evaluation.

Human Serum (CRP free)

90R-100 100 ml
EUR 1105
Description: C-reactive protein free normal human serum

Human Serum (FABP free)

90R-109 100 ml
EUR 1105
Description: FABP free normal human serum

Human Serum (Myoglobin Free)

90R-110 100 ml
EUR 1105
Description: Myoglobin free normal human serum

INSECTAGRO SF9, SERUM FREE

13-410-CV 500 mL/pk
EUR 124
Description: Specialty Media; Insect Media Products

Myoglobin-Free Serum Protein

abx069893-50ml 50 ml
EUR 1121

VitroPlus III, Serum-Free, Xeno-Free, Complete

PC00B2 500 ml
EUR 375

EZ-DNA Reagents

BS8202 100preps
EUR 88.06

EZ-DNA Reagents

SK8201 100preps
EUR 93.5

Human Free PSA (f-PSA) ELISA Kit

PRB-5049-FREE-5 5 x 96 assays
EUR 2283

Human Serum (Troponin I Free)

90R-106 100 ml
EUR 1181
Description: Troponion I free normal human serum

Serum Albumin, Lipid Free Protein

20-abx260049
  • EUR 773.00
  • EUR 286.00
  • EUR 523.00
  • 100 mg
  • 10 mg
  • 50 mg

Bovine Serum Albumin, protease free

GK4012-1KG 1 kg
EUR 971

Bovine Serum Albumin, protease free

GK4012-500G 500 g
EUR 532

PK15 Cell Serum-Free Medium

VCum-Lsx0007 1 L
EUR 758
Description: PK15 cell serum-free medium has been specifically developed for suspension culture of PK-15 cells.

CHO Cell Serum-Free Medium

VCum-Lsx0025 1L
EUR 635
Description: A serum-free medium that is ideal for suspension culture of CHO cell lines (CHO DG44, CHO-K1 and CHO-S).

HEK Cell Serum-Free Medium

VCum-Lsx0027 1L